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Journal: Journal of Travel Medicine 



The aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of smoking on the humoral response to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (also known as the BioNTech-Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine).

Study design

A longitudinal sero-epidemiological study was conducted in sample of Italian healthcare workers (HCWs).


HCWs who were administered two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, 21 days apart, between December 2020 and January 2021, were invited to undergo multiple serology tests to identify SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Participants also responded to questions about their smoking status (i.e. current smokers vs non-smokers) in a survey.


Sixty days after the completion of the vaccination cycle, serological analyses showed a difference in vaccine-induced IgG titre between current smokers and non-smokers, with median antibody titres of 211.80 AU/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 149.80–465.50) and 487.50 AU/mL (IQR 308.45–791.65) [P-value = 0.002], respectively. This significant difference in vaccine-induced IgG titres between current smokers and non-smokers remained after adjusting for age, sex, and previous infection with SARS-CoV-2.


This study observed that vaccine-induced antibody titres decrease faster among current smokers than non-smokers. Further research to investigate the impact of smoking on the immunological response to COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 vaccines is required.